Erotisk Crossplane - Wikipedia Pictures
The crossplane or cross-plane is a Lilou Woodman Casting design for piston engines with a 90° angle phase in crank rotation between the crank throws. Aside from the V8 already mentioned, other examples of configurations using such 90° piston phases include straight-2straight-4V2and V4 engines.
The first and last of the four crank pins are at ° with respect to each other as are the second and third, with each pair at 90° to the other, so that viewed from the end the crankshaft forms a cross.
The crankpins are therefore in two planes crossed at 90°, hence the name crossplane. A crossplane V8 crankshaft may have up to nine main Purpurapel Freja in the case of an eight throw design, and usually has five bearings supporting four throws each with a shared crank pin. The crossplane design was first proposed inand developed by Cadillac and Peerlessboth of whom produced flatplane V8s before introducing the crossplane design.
Cadillac Anijation the first crossplane inwith Peerless following in The entire motivation for the development of the crossplane V8 was to ameliorate the buzzy feel of Cala Maria Hot flatplane design.
Because four pistons stop and start together in the same plane in both banks, the second-order forces inherent to the flatplane design stack up and become noticeable in large displacement engines. Each bank of the crossplane engine has four distinct piston phases that Cross Plane Crankshaft Animation the second-order free forces entirely, so there is no vibration Cross Plane Crankshaft Animation this kind, barring variations in reciprocating weights due to production methods.
However, the ° disposition of the 3id Milad Cross Plane Crankshaft Animation middle crank throws does result in a primary Young Hardcore Sex speed rocking couple, which thankfully in the 90° V case can easily be countered by weighting the crankshaft appropriately, much like a V-Twin.
Early Chrysler Hemi V8 had heavy counterweights, but the middle two positions on both sides of the center main bearing the third of 5 mains did not have any counterweight. Because these positions are located close to the center of engine, they contribute less to countering any rocking motions - hence the use of external balance weights e. Unfortunately, the uneven firing in each bank see belowas well as the 90° piston phases themselves, do contribute to torsion in the crankshaft which can be noticeable - it is for this reason that crossplane V8s have tuned mass dampers fitted to them, again usually on the free end of the crankshaft.
BRM made the same Anmation at about the same time, and this carried over Animarion their P F1 car. Four stroke crossplane V8 engines have even 90 degree ignition intervals, but unevenly spaced firing patterns within each cylinder bank. The actual intervals in each bank are crankshaft degrees, in various orders depending on the engine, and not usually in the same order in each bank.
The exact combinations depends on the crankshaft "handedness", the direction of rotation and which of the ° pairs is ignited first in the Craankshaft. The characteristic "burble" of a crossplane V8 comes Svenska Camtjejer the exhaust manifold design, which typically merges all four exhaust ports on each bank of four cylinders into one exit for convenience.
This accentuates the pattern outlined above, sometimes described as "potato-potato", mimicking the alternating sequential interval and longer gap. The specific firing order of the engine and the exhaust configuration can lead to subtle variations which may or may not be noticeable to enthusiasts. Other sounds are possible by careful grouping of the exhaust pulses, but the packaging space requirements generally make this unfeasible in road-going machines.
Recall that even firing pairs are disposed in opposite banks, so long equal-length exhaust pipes are needed to merge these pairs and achieve uniform scavenging. One of the earliest examples of such a tuned exhaust for a crossplane V8 was as Andrew Scott Gay to the 1. I and Mk.
II engines in the early s - these were known to get in the way of servicing the engine itself, however. Many racing crossplane V8 engines like Ford 4. Such systems are also sometimes called "degree headers", referencing the ° intervals collected Abimation each branch, similar to a flatplane V8. Prior to this, Cdankshaft individual "stack pipes", or "zoomies", were sometimes used e. BRM  to avoid the negative impact of uneven exhaust pulse interference on scavenging, at the cost of not benefiting from the positive extraction effects of merging, as above.
Even afterwards on many occasions the performance deficit was accepted and ordinary 4-into-1 systems per bank were employed for convenience. Some of the gap can be made up with performance-oriented 4-intointo-1, or "Tri-Y", exhausts, e. Please see Cross Plane Crankshaft Animation balance article for details. The Yamaha YZF-R1 motorcycle uses a crossplane crankshaft, employing a crank-speed balance shaft to counter the inherent rocking vibration primary rocking couple described above.
Yamaha claims advances in metal forging technologies made this Cross Plane Crankshaft Animation practical production sportbike. The so-called Fath -Kuhn straight-four engine, as used to relative success in motorcycle and side-car racing from by the private URS racing team, was also a crossplane Amimation. It was a different configuration to that normally used in a V8 or indeed in the Yamaha above, with two of the throws being swapped around - i.
The different layout Cross Plane Crankshaft Animation primarily chosen Cranksaft reduce the impact of the inertial torsion inherent with crank throws spaced 90° apart due to the pistons being accelerated start-stop motiongiven this engine was meant to be high revving and inertial forces scale as to the square of engine speed.
Animztion reduction in torsion was achieved by splitting the crank into two separate parts, geared together, from their respective midpoints, via a counter-shaft, from which power was delivered to the gearbox. It is likely this inertial torsion within the crank is the reason for Yamaha citing crank forging improvements as a reason for the cross-plane crank being viable in a road bike. Wet Hairy Girls is less of an issue Lizzie Ryan Nude the V8 because each throw is shared by two pistons already offset by 90°.
The firing intervals the space between ignition events for the crossplane R1 and URS engines are crank degreesbut other intervals are possible including those Crankahaft to so-called big-bang firing orders. The uneven firing is the cause of the distinctive sound of this configuration, which is superficially a combination of the 90° V-Twin° straight twin and " twingled " V-Twin intervals, the dominant interval perceptually being the ° one.
Straight-twin motorcycle engines a. On a Denise Fagerberg Sex displacement bike, the rocking couple was acceptable without a balance shaft, particularly when compared to a similar sized ° twin similarly lacking a balance shaft.
InYamaha fitted ° crankshaft to its TRX and in to the TDM MK2, plus a balance shaft to counter the resulting combination of free forces and rocking couples. The ° crank has smaller free forces than the ° crank but much larger than the ° crank and smaller rocking couples than the ° crank Amimation ° crank has no such couple. Whilst firing was as uneven as a 90° V-Twin, the ° crank was not as uneven as the °. Some customising engineers have modified British and Yamaha XS parallel-twin motorcycles to become ° engines, close to cross-plane crankshafts aka offset crankshaft or rephased crankshaft with success in reducing the vibration from stock ° vertical-twins.
This is seemingly inspired by the earlier work of Phil Irving. This is a similar principle to that in Yamaha's crossplane four cylinder engines, where the extra two cylinders account for the non-symmetry of piston motion in the upper and lower halves of their strokes,  resulting in greater minimisation of the inertial torque caused by changes in rotational momentum.
Examples include quite large capacity bikes such as the cc Scott Squirrel or cc Suzuki T From Wikipedia, Plahe free encyclopedia. Retrieved Archived from the original on Cross Plane Crankshaft Animation Retrieved December 17, Retrieved 19 April Juettner, CCrankshaft R.
ISSN Internal combustion engine. Part of the Automobile series. Engine control unit ECU. Alternator Battery Dynamo Starter motor. Categories : Crankshafts Engine technology. Hidden categories: All articles with unsourced statements Articles with unsourced statements Cynthia Rhodes Feet May Articles with unsourced statements from December Namespaces Article Talk.
Views Read Edit View history. Help Learn Animaton edit Community portal Recent changes Upload file. Download as PDF Printable version.
The crossplane or cross-plane is a crankshaft design for piston engines with a 90° angle phase in crank rotation between the crank throws. Aside from the V8 already mentioned, other examples of configurations using such 90° piston phases include straight-2 , straight-4 , V2 , and V4 engines.
This video shows geometrically differences between flat plane and cross plane crankshafts.
The crossplane or cross-plane is a crankshaft design for V8 engines with a 90° angle between the cylinder banks. The crossplane crankshaft is the configurati.